The following text is the original work of Dr. Staffan Lindeberg – a key figure in the revival of the Paleo diet in the late 20th Century. His most notable work is the Kitava Study, published in the early nineties.

While this work has been published previously on his website it was not accessible for the last few years, Fitness Verve is proud to be able to bring you these studies once again.

Check out our summary page for more about Dr. Lindeberg and his work.

The Kitava Study

No signs of cardiovascular disease in a non-western population. Excellent risk factor levels. >>read more>>

Paleolithic diet in humans

Improved glucose tolerance after 3 months in the first controlled human trial. >>read more>>

Paleolithic diet in pigs

Improved insulin sensitivity, CRP and blood pressure in the first animal experiment. 

Literature surveys

Accumulated evidence favors an evolutionary perspective. >>read more>>

Our main objective is to study nutrition in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and related metabolic disorders. The working hypothesis is that a Paleolithic diet (the Paleolithic is the time period 2,000,000-10,000 years BP), basically meat, fish, vegetables, fruit and nuts, has benefits even compared with prudent diets based on whole-grain cereals and low-fat milk.

The basic notions are that

1) foods are appropriate for any given species if they were regularly consumed during most of its prior evolution;

2) plants protect themselves with bioactive substances directly aimed at animals, substances which may have untoward effects on long-term human health.

Selected articles

1. Lindeberg, S, Jönsson, T, Granfeldt, Y, Borgstrand, E, Soffman, J, Sjöström, K, and Ahrén, B. A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease. Diabetologia, 2007; In press:

2. Lindeberg, S. Modern human phsyiology with respect to evolutionary adaptations that relate to diet in the past, in The Evolution of Hominid Diets: integrating approaches to the study of Palaeolithic subsistence, M.P. Richards and J.J. Hublin, Editors. in press, Elsevier.

3. Frostegard, J, Tao, W, Georgiades, A, Rastam, L, Lindblad, U, and Lindeberg, S. Atheroprotective natural anti-phosphorylcholine antibodies of IgM subclass are decreased in Swedish controls as compared to non-westernized individuals from New Guinea. Nutr Metab (Lond), 2007; 4: 7 >>Free full text>>

4. Jönsson, T, Ahren, B, Pacini, G, Sundler, F, Wierup, N, Steen, S, Sjoberg, T, Ugander, M, Frostegard, J, Goransson, L, and Lindeberg, S. A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pigs. Nutr Metab (Lond), 2006; 3: 39 >>Free full text>>

5. Lindeberg, S. Who wants to be normal? Eur Heart J, 2005; 26: 2605-6 >>Free full text>>

6. Jönsson, T, Olsson, S, Ahrén, B, Bøg-Hansen, TC, Dole, A, and Lindeberg, S. Agrarian diet and dieases of affluence – Do evolutionary novel dietary lectins cause leptin resistance? BMC Endocrine Dis, 2005; 5: doi:10.1186/1472-6823-5-10 >>Free full text>>

7. Cordain, L, Eaton, SB, Sebastian, A, Mann, N, Lindeberg, S, Watkins, BA, O’Keefe, JH, and Brand-Miller, J. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr, 2005; 81: 341-54 >>Free full text>>

8. Lindeberg, S, Cordain, L, and Eaton, SB. Biological and clinical potential of a palaeolithic diet. J Nutr Environ Med, 2003; 13: 1-12

9. Lindeberg, S. Stroke in Papua New Guinea. Lancet Neurol, 2003; 2: 273

10. Cordain, L, Eaton, SB, Brand Miller, J, Lindeberg, S, and Jensen, C. An evolutionary analysis of the aetiology and pathogenesis of juvenile-onset myopia. Acta Ophthalmol Scand, 2002; 80: 125-35 >>Free full text>>

11. Eaton, SB, Cordain, L, and Lindeberg, S. Evolutionary health promotion: a consideration of common counterarguments. Prev Med, 2002; 34: 119-123

12. Eaton, SB, Strassman, BI, Nesse, RM, Neel, JV, Ewald, PW, Williams, GC, Weder, AB, Eaton, SB, 3rd, Lindeberg, S, Konner, MJ, Mysterud, I, and Cordain, L. Evolutionary health promotion. Prev Med, 2002; 34: 109-118

13. Cordain, L, Lindeberg, S, Hurtado, M, Hill, K, Eaton, SB, and Brand Miller, J. Acne vulgaris: a disease of civilization. Arch Dermatol, 2002; 138: 1584-90. >>Free full text>>

14. Lindeberg, S, Soderberg, S, Ahren, B, and Olsson, T. Large differences in serum leptin levels between nonwesternized and westernized populations: the Kitava study. J Intern Med, 2001; 249: 553-8. >>Free full text>>

15. Lindeberg, S, Eliasson, M, Lindahl, B, and Ahrén, B. Low serum insulin in traditional Pacific Islanders–the Kitava Study. Metabolism, 1999; 48: 1216-1219

16. Lindeberg, S, Berntorp, E, Nilsson-Ehle, P, Terent, A, and Vessby, B. Age relations of cardiovascular risk factors in a traditional Melanesian society: the Kitava Study. Am J Clin Nutr, 1997; 66: 845-52 >>Free full text>>

17. Lindeberg, S, Berntorp, E, Carlsson, R, Eliasson, M, and Marckmann, P. Haemostatic variables in Pacific Islanders apparently free from stroke and ischaemic heart disease. Thromb Haemost, 1997; 77: 94-8

18. Lindeberg, S. Apparent absence of cerebrocardiovascular disease in Melanesians. Risk factors and nutritional considerations – the Kitava Study. 1994, University of Lund.

19. Lindeberg, S, Nilsson-Ehle, P, Terént, A, Vessby, B, and Scherstén, B. Cardiovascular risk factors in a Melanesian population apparently free from stroke and ischaemic heart disease — the Kitava study. J Intern Med, 1994; 236: 331-340

20. Lindeberg, S and Lundh, B. Apparent absence of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a traditional Melanesian island: a clinical study in Kitava. J Intern Med, 1993; 233: 269-275

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